python3之协程

发布于 2018-08-04  241 次阅读


//下面这部分转自 廖雪峰的官方网站
Python通过yield提供了对协程的基本支持,但是不完全。而第三方的gevent为Python提供了比较完善的协程支持。
gevent是第三方库,通过greenlet实现协程,其基本思想是:
当一个greenlet遇到IO操作时,比如访问网络,就自动切换到其他的greenlet,等到IO操作完成,再在适当的时候切换回来继续执行。由于IO操作非常耗时,经常使程序处于等待状态,有了gevent为我们自动切换协程,就保证总有greenlet在运行,而不是等待IO。

由于切换是在IO操作时自动完成,所以gevent需要修改Python自带的一些标准库,这一过程在启动时通过monkey patch完成:

from gevent import monkey; monkey.patch_socket()
import gevent

def f(n):
    for i in range(n):
        print gevent.getcurrent(), i

g1 = gevent.spawn(f, 5)
g2 = gevent.spawn(f, 5)
g3 = gevent.spawn(f, 5)
g1.join()
g2.join()
g3.join()

运行结果

<Greenlet at 0x10e49f550: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f550: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f550: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f550: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f550: f(5)> 4
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f910: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f910: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f910: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f910: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f910: f(5)> 4
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f4b0: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f4b0: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f4b0: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f4b0: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10e49f4b0: f(5)> 4

可以看到,3个greenlet是依次运行而不是交替运行。

要让greenlet交替运行,可以通过gevent.sleep()交出控制权:

def f(n):
    for i in range(n):
        print gevent.getcurrent(), i
        gevent.sleep(0)

执行结果:

<Greenlet at 0x10cd58550: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58910: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10cd584b0: f(5)> 0
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58550: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10cd584b0: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58910: f(5)> 1
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58550: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58910: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10cd584b0: f(5)> 2
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58550: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10cd584b0: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58910: f(5)> 3
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58550: f(5)> 4
<Greenlet at 0x10cd58910: f(5)> 4
<Greenlet at 0x10cd584b0: f(5)> 4

3个greenlet交替运行,
把循环次数改为500000,让它们的运行时间长一点,然后在操作系统的进程管理器中看,线程数只有1个。
当然,实际代码里,我们不会用gevent.sleep()去切换协程,而是在执行到IO操作时,gevent自动切换,代码如下:

from gevent import monkey; monkey.patch_all()
import gevent
import urllib2

def f(url):
    print('GET: %s' % url)
    resp = urllib2.urlopen(url)
    data = resp.read()
    print('%d bytes received from %s.' % (len(data), url))

gevent.joinall([
        gevent.spawn(f, 'https://www.python.org/'),
        gevent.spawn(f, 'https://www.yahoo.com/'),
        gevent.spawn(f, 'https://github.com/'),
])

运行结果:

GET: https://www.python.org/
GET: https://www.yahoo.com/
GET: https://github.com/
45661 bytes received from https://www.python.org/.
14823 bytes received from https://github.com/.
304034 bytes received from https://www.yahoo.com/.

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